Scientific Studies on Rodenticides, Wildlife, and Pets

On this regularly-updated page we provide links to articles, presentations, and scientific and regulatory studies about the impacts of rodenticides on wildlife and pets.

Anticoagulant poisons like d-Con continue to be widely used, often affecting raptors and other non-target animals. They cause death by internal bleeding, with several days usually separating exposure and death; sublethal impact is also common.


A study of the toxicity of the anticoagulant brodifacoum to American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (1990)

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes in the Denver Metropolitan Area (2015)

Primary and secondary poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides of non-target animals in Spain (2012)

Acute poisoning of endangered red kites in France (2008)

Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticide diphacinone (2011)

Anticoagulant Rodenticides: Secondary Poisoning of Wildlife in California (2013 – includes sublethal impacts and alternatives)

Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010

Anticoagulant rodenticides in three owl species from Western Canada, 1988-2003

Assessing Some Potential Environmental Impacts from Agricultural Anticoagulant Uses (2010)

Causes of mortality and unintentional poisoning in predatory and scavenging birds in California (2014)

Impacts of Rodenticide and Insecticide Toxicants from Marijuana Cultivation Sites on Fisher Survival Rates in the Sierra National Forest, California (2013)

Influence of Poisoned Prey on Foraging Behavior of Ferruginous Hawks (2017)

Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas (2011)

Factors influencing estimation of pesticide related wildlife mortality (1999)

Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: A Comparative Approach. (US EPA) (2004)

Protecting Raptors From Rodenticides (2011, pub. 2013)

Review of non-target hazards associated with rodenticide use in the USA (1988)

Rodenticide Use on Black-tailed Prairie Dogs and Unintended Consequences to Non-target Wildlife (2012)

Second generation anticoagulant rodenticide residues in barn owls (2015)

Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada (abstract, 2011 – click here for full PDF)

Suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide toxicosis in avian species at a zoological institution (2013)

Sublethal Impacts:

Summary of Sublethal Impacts

Anticoagulant Exposure and Notoedric Mange in Bobcats and Mountain Lions in Urban Southern California (2007)

Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France (2004)

Growth Performance of Nestling Barn Owls in Rat Baiting Area in Malaysia (2010)

Side effects of rodent control on non-target species: Rodenticides increase parasite and pathogen burdens in great bustards (2011)