Scientific Studies on Rodenticides, Wildlife, and Pets

On this regularly-updated page we provide links to articles, presentations, and scientific and regulatory studies about the impacts of rodenticides on wildlife and pets.

Anticoagulant Rodenticide (AR) poisons like d-Con continue to be widely used, often affecting raptors and other non-target animals. They cause death by internal bleeding, with several days usually separating exposure and death; sublethal impact is also common.


Pilot study by the Ventura County Public Works Agency showing raptors to be more effective than rodenticides (2018)

Rodenticide exposure of threatened Northern Spotted Owl near marijuana growing operations (MGOs) (2018)

Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats in southern California (2018)

Exposure to rodenticides in Northern Spotted and Barred Owls on remote forest lands in northwestern California due to marijuana cultivation (2017)

Influence of Poisoned Prey on Foraging Behavior of Ferruginous Hawks (2017)

Second generation anticoagulant rodenticide residues in barn owls (2015)

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes in the Denver Metropolitan Area (2015)

Patterns of Natural and Human-Caused Mortality Factors of a Rare Forest Carnivore, the Fisher (Pekania pennanti) in California (2015)

Causes of mortality and unintentional poisoning in predatory and scavenging birds in California (2014)

Silent Forests? Rodenticides on Illegal Marijuana Crops Harm Wildlife (2013 – further studies of impact on fishers)

Impacts of Rodenticide and Insecticide Toxicants from Marijuana Cultivation Sites on Fisher Survival Rates in the Sierra National Forest in California (2013)

Anticoagulant Rodenticides: Secondary Poisoning of Wildlife in California (2013 – includes sublethal impacts and alternatives)

Protecting Raptors From Rodenticides (2011, pub. 2013)

Suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide toxicosis in avian species at a zoological institution (2013)

Declining Little Eagles and increasing rabbit numbers near Canberra: is secondary poisoning by Pindone the problem? (Australia, 2012)

AR contamination in a rare carnivore [fisher (Martes pennanti)], four documented deaths and one altricial kit exposed in utero or via mother milk (2012)

Primary and secondary poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides of non-target animals in Spain (2012)

Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California (2012)

Rodenticide Use on Black-tailed Prairie Dogs and Unintended Consequences to Non-target Wildlife (2012)

Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticide diphacinone (2011)

Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas (2011)

Assessing Some Potential Environmental Impacts from Agricultural Anticoagulant Uses (2010)

Comparative Toxicity of Diphacinone to Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (2010)

“Super-Toxic” Rat Poison Kills Owls (2010)

Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010

Exposure of non-target small mammals to rodenticides: short-term effects, recovery and implications for secondary poisoning (England, 2005)

Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France (2004)

Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: A Comparative Approach. (US EPA) (2004)

Anticoagulant rodenticides in three owl species from Western Canada, 1988-2003

Sublethal Impacts:

Summary of Sublethal Impacts

Systemic effects of anticoagulant rodenticides on individual fitness and population of bobcats (2018)

Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats, increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections and disease (2017)

Side effects of rodent control on non-target species: Rodenticides increase parasite and pathogen burdens in great bustards (2011)

Growth Performance of Nestling Barn Owls in Rat Baiting Area in Malaysia (2010)

Anticoagulant Exposure and Notoedric Mange in Bobcats and Mountain Lions in Urban Southern California (2007)

Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France (2004)